The gender of a baby is determined by male reproductive cells or sperms. Two types of sperm containing X or Y sex chromosomes are generated by the male reproductive system. Girls are made by X chromosome- bearing sperms and boys by Y chromosome-bearing sperms. It is better to say that sexual male or female characteristics are specified by such chromosomal differences. In addition to a variety of sperms’ chromosomes, their physical differences can also be effective in determining fetal gender. For instance, sperms containing the X chromosome survive for longer in the female body. Y chromosome –bearing sperms move faster however, they lose their own quality slightly, as father’s age increases. Novel medical approaches (with the lower error probability) can be helpful, although some nonmedical approaches are recommended for parents to identify fetal sex.
Fetal Sex Determination is made in some cases
In general, parents may proceed to identify the gender of own baby for the causes listed below:
Medical Problems such as preventing transmission of X -linked diseases: some genetic diseases like hemophilia are spread by the X chromosome. To prevent it to be inherited from the affected father, the sex determination can be made and a boy needed to be born so that, it protects him against illness.
Balancing children’s gender: to experience the pleasure of having a girl or a boy, some parents tend to determine sex.
How fetal sex determination is performed?
One of the simplest and most inexpensive methods for prenatal sex determination is to predict the day of ovulation by ultrasound. In such a method, the doctor will advise you on having sex at the right time. Having intercourse within 2-3 days in the ovulatory phase increases the probability of a female’s and in the post-ovulatory phase, the probability of a male fetus formation. Indeed, the success rate of this method is much lower than the following items:
Prenatal sex determination may be done in three steps including pre-fertilization, post-fertilization, and pre-embryo transfer to the uterus and pre-implantation of the embryo.
Sperm Separation (Ericsson Technique): Sperms containing X and Y chromosomes have different weights. Sperms are distinguished based on such differences. Then, sperm and egg fertilization can be performed in vitro or by Intrauterine Insemination (IUI). The method (with probability (70-80%) identifies the fetal sex correctly.
Post-Fertilization and Embryo Pretransfer to The Uterus
Pre-implementation Genetic Diagnosis(PGD): these are the most trustworthy techniques to determine the sex. Embryos cells newly formed in vitro are sampled in such a technique. Next, the genetic content of cells is examined. At last, an embryo with the desired gender is selected. Contrary to the previous technique, it can identify the gender of the embryo about 100% correctly. According to the necessity of IVF, however, it is not easy to perform and is more widely used to prevent the transmission of x-linked diseases.
In this method, the gender of embryo can be determined using Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and Amniocentesis within 8-20 weeks.
Abortion can be carried out in the event of gender inconsistency. It is only permitted for parents affected by certain genetic diseases.
Sex Determination in Iran
Some techniques to determine fetal sex is performed in Iran. Having equipped with experienced physicians and modern infertility equipment and clinics, Iran is one of the pioneering countries in the field of infertility treatment and sex determination. The low cost of infertility treatment in comparison with the quality of medical services can be cited as the other reasons for Iran’s priority in this regard.
You can access your most appropriate medical center and technique through Medova free consultation in Iran. Before making a final decision, be sure of getting information from Medova’s experts regarding legal restrictions on the sex determination in Iran.
Doctors who perform the sex determination in Iran
In Iran, the sex determination is carried out by gynecologists and in more specialized cases, such as PGD by infertility and IVF fellowship-trained gynecologists.