Knee replacement, also called total knee replacement or knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure that replaces damaged cartilage with new joints to relieve pain and increase in function in patients with knee problems. It is used to replace the articular surfaces of the femur and tibia in knee joints with artificial surfaces. This surgery involves cutting damaged bone and cartilage from the lower end of the thighbone, the higher end of the shinbone, patella, and its replacement with an artificial or prosthetic joint made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics, and polymers.
Knee joint arthroplasty in cases where patient’s joint surfaces have destroyed for reasons such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, severe Varus deformity or valgus, trauma, or chronic intra-articular hemorrhage is performed by precise replacement of ready-made prostheses.
Causes of knee joint replacement
Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, meniscus and ligament injury, articular cartilage defect
People with severe pain and stiffness in their knees and preventing them from doing daily activities including walking without pain
People with knee deformities
People with knee swollen
People without receiving results from various treatments such as physiotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and weight loss.
The physician evaluates the patient for medical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention using clinical judgment. During this practice, there are specific sequences of activities that are commonly observed, including history, physical examination, preparation of problems list, differential diagnosis, considerations (such as MRI and tests), treatment decision-making.
How to perform knee replacement?
By placing the patient under general anesthesia or injecting an anesthetic into the spinal epidural space, the surgeon makes an incision 20 to 25 cm long in front of the knee. The damaged part of the joint is removed from the surface of the bones and then the surfaces are shaped so that it can hold an artificial metal or plastic joint. The artificial joint is attached to the femur, tibia, and kneecap using bone cement or other special materials. After proper placement and adjustment, the connected artificial parts form a joint that depends on the ligaments and muscles surrounding it for function and stability. At the end of the process, the space created by the suture is sewn and placed on the dressing area.
Performing the required tests and graphics (CT Scan)
NPO (nothing by mouth), which the doctor determines the time.
Take liquid oral medications and pharmacotherapy and prophylactic antibiotics (preventive)
Obtain consent and remove artificial jewelry and false teeth
Shave the intended area for surgery
Improve the patient’s morale
During the operation
Take liquid oral medications and pharmacotherapy
Prevent embolism by prescribing anticoagulants
Change dressings and keep the surgical area dry
Complications of knee replacement
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Chronic pain or stiffness in the limbs
Damaged blood vessels
Complications after this surgery are more common in overweight people, and people with morbid obesity are advised to lose weight before surgery.
Bone fractures are usually found around the prosthesis, during or after surgery in the elderly population.
Before knee surgery, consider the following items:
Weight loss, following physiotherapy sessions under the supervision of a physician, doing exercises, try the ways of drug treatment, considering surgery as the last solution
Medications prescribed by a doctor, wound care, patient’s mental health care, and exercises that the patient should do are among the most important. In any surgery, there is a possibility of infection at the operation site. So the treating physician will give the patient an antibiotic for a
while after the surgery to reduce the chance of infection after the surgery. Your treating physician may prescribe oral antibiotics so that you can use them at home for a while after you are discharged from the hospital. The patient should completely take the medication and inform the treating physician of any increase in pain intensity.
Knee Replacement in Iran
Iran has always been a well-known destination for patients seeking medical attention, especially for middle eastern countries. Orthopedics is one of the disciplines in which Iranian specialists have achieved in-depth knowledge and technologies. Orthopedic surgeries are performed with a high rate of success and safety in Iran.
Medova has been one of the Iranian pioneers in serving foreign patients as a routine service. Patients are coming around the world for knee replacement and non-invasive surgeries. Having provided affordable specialist and subspecialist treatments compared to other countries as well as the most up-to-date equipment, Medova has tried to have a world-class center for the treatment of patients.